Dijareja kod dece

Visoke temperature pogoduju širenju uzročnika crevnih infekcija, pa se prolivi kod dece češće javljaju tokom letnjih meseci. Proliv izazivaju mikroorganizmi koji se unose putem hrane i vode, kao i preko prljavih ruku.

Smatra se da dete ima proliv, ako ima više od tri vodenaste stolice dnevno. Što je broj stolica veći, to je i proliv teži. Učestale stolice dovode do gubitka tečnosti i drugih supstanci neophodnih za normalno funkcionisanje organizma, pa je dete iscrpljeno, malaksalo i bezvoljno. Zbog svega toga je neophodno da se sa nadoknadom tečnosti počne što pre.

Za odojčad koja sisaju, najbolji izvor tečnosti i hrane je majčino mleko. Ono sprečava deghidrataciju i pothranjenost i nadoknađuje izgubljenu tečnost, pa nikako u ovakvim situacijama ne bi trebalo prekidati sa dojenjem, već je dobro dojiti dete češće nego obično. Bebama koje ne sisaju i starijoj deci, najbolje je za vreme proliva davati rastvore rehidracionih soli (Orosal,Rexidromiks…)

Od namirnica koje sami možete spremiti kod kuće, najbolje su supice, sveže ceđeni sokovi, pirinčana voda, blagi čajevi sa vrlo malo šećera, a naravno i čista voda koju je najbolje najpre prokuvati, prohladiti, pa tek onda je dati detetu.

Deci starijoj od 6 meseci bi nakon svake tečne stolice trebalo davati između 50 i 100 ml tečnosti, a deci starijoj od 2 godine i više. Potrebno je detetu davati dodatne količine tečnosti sve dok proliv potpuno ne prestane.

Da dete koje ima proliv ne bi postalo pothranjeno, potrebno je da nastavi sa redovnim uzimanjem obroka. Najbolje bi bilo davati mu 5-6 manjih obroka dnevno. Maloj deci i starijim bebama idealno je ponuditi propasiranu hranu, jer sadrži više tečnosti i lakše se jede.

Dete koje pored proliva i povraća, ne bi trebalo da uzima velike količine tečnosti odjednom, već je potrebno sačekati da prođe najmanje 10-15 minuta od povraćanja, pa mu tek onda dati tečnost u malim gutljajima, sa pauzama(na 5min po 5ml tecnosti), sve dok ne popije dovoljnu količinu. Veća količina data u jednom aktu, mogla bi da nadraži želudac i dovede do novog talasa povraćanja.

Prolivi najčešće spontano prolaze za 5-7 dana, ali u koliko dete:

  • ima proliv duže od sedam dana
  • ima krv u stolici
  • ima povišenu telesnu temperaturu
  • ima nekoliko vodenastih stolica u jednom satu
  • odbija da jede i pije tečnost

javite se pedijatru.

Dr Tatjana Majkić
Lekar specijalista pedijatrije

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